Proxima C – Possible second planet found near the nearest neighbor to the Sun
Proxima C - Possible second planet found near the nearest neighbor to the Sun

Proxima C – Possible second planet found near the nearest neighbor to the Sun

Proxima C – Possible second planet found near the nearest neighbor to the Sun: An international team of astronomers has detected a candidate super-Earth planet in orbit around Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun.

Artist impression of the Proxima Centauri system. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star only 4.23 light years away in the Centaurus constellation. This small and cold star is not visible to the naked eye and is possessed by a much brighter pair, Alpha Centauri AB.

In 2016, a rocky planet was discovered in the Proxima Centauri System.

Called Proxima B, the planet has a mass near Earth and orbits its star at an average distance of 0.05 AU with a period of 11.2 days. It is located within the habitable zone of the star, where liquid water could theoretically exist on the surface.

In 2017, astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA) matrix reported the existence of an unknown source at a distance of 1.6 AU in the system.

To understand if the ALMA signal originated on another planet, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino and his colleagues from Drs. Mario Demaso analyzed a series of 17-year high-precision radio-velocities using an exoplanet detection method, which tracks the light spectrum of a star.

“If this spectrum oscillates between red and blue, it indicates that the star is increasingly moving away from Earth at regular intervals, a cycle usually caused by the presence of the orbiting body.” The astronomers explained.

“We discovered that the signal is produced over a period of 1,900 days, which suggests that it is not related to cyclic changes in the star’s magnetic field. However, more evidence is needed to confirm this conclusion.”

The candidate planet has a minimum mass of 5.8 times that of the Earth, which makes it the so-called super Earth.

Nicknamed Proxima C, it has an orbital period of 5.21 years and a surface temperature of minus 234 ° C (minus 389 ° F).

Professor Hugh Jones, a member of the team, said an astronomer: “The proximity of the planet and its orbit to its star is one of the best possible opportunities for direct observation of its star.” Hertfordshire University.

“In the future, Proxima c may become a potential target for a more direct study by the Breakthrough Starshot Project, humanity’s first attempt to travel to another star system.”

The team article was published in Science Advance.

Astronomers discovered five new planets around nearby red dwarfs: Astronomers have detected five new planets, eight planetary candidates and confirmed three previously reported planets, about nine M-dwarf stars (red dwarfs). Among the new planets, Gliese 180d and Gliese 229Ac are super-Lands located in conservative habitable areas of their host stars; Gliese 433c is a super cold Neptune candidate who belongs to populations of unexplained planets like Neptune.

The concept of an artist of the planetary system Glacey 180, located 39 light years away in the planetarium of Eridanus. Image credit: Robin Dynel, Carnegie Institution for Science.
The concept of an artist of the planetary system Glacey 180, located 39 light years away in the planetarium of Eridanus.

M dwarfs are the most common star in our galaxy, the Milky Way, and the primary class of stars is known to house terrestrial planets.

The first planet of land mass was found around the dwarf M Gliese 876.

M dwarfs have been the main objective of potentially habitable planets during the last decade because their habitable regions are very close to the star and, therefore, have a much shorter duration than the sun-like stars that orbit potentially planets habitable Happens

“Many planets that revolve around red dwarfs in the habitable zone are happily closed, which means that the period in which they revolve around their axes is the same as the period in which they orbit their host stars,” astronomers from the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution for Science.

“This is similar to how our moon is locked on Earth, which means we only see one side from here.”

“As a result, these exoplanets have very cold permanent nights on one side and very hot permanent days on the other, which is not good for the habit.”

“Glisee 180D is the warmest super Earth for us, which is not closed to its star, which probably increases the possibility of being a host and sustaining life,” he said.

The Glyce 180D has 7.49 times the minimum mass of the Earth and an orbital period of 106 days.

Artistic concept of Glisee 229Ac, located 18.8 light years from Earth. This is the temperate super-Earth closest to us in a system in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion. Image credit: Robin Dynel, Carnegie Institution for Science.
Artistic concept of Glisee 229Ac, located 18.8 light years from Earth. This is the temperate super-Earth closest to us in a system in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion. Image credit: Robin Dynel, Carnegie Institution for Science.

Another potentially habitable planet, Glycea 229Ac, is 7.93 times larger than Earth. It revolves around its original star once every 122 days.

This is the closest temperate Earth closest to us that is in a system in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion.

In this system, the brown dwarf, Glycea 229b, was one of the first brown dwarfs to be copied.

It is not known if they can accommodate exoplanets by themselves, but this planetary system is an external case study of how exoplanets form and evolve in a binary star brown dwarf system.

“Our discovery adds to the list of planets that could possibly be directly photographed by the next generation of telescopes,” said Dr. Fang.

“Ultimately, we are working towards the goal of being able to determine if planets harbor life, orbiting nearby stars.”

The mass planet of Neptune Gliese 433 C is located at a distance from its star, where surface water is likely to freeze.

The planet is possibly the first realistic candidate to obtain direct images of the cold Neptune.

The team detected three Gliese planets 422b, 433d and 3082b and seven planetary candidates Gliese 173b, 229Ab, 620b, 620c, 739b, 739c and 911b.

“Eventually we want to produce a map of all the planets, orbiting the stars closest to our own solar system, especially those that are potentially habitable,” co-author Dr. Wants an astronomer at the observatories of the Carnegie Institution, said Jeff Crane. Science.

The findings appear in two articles in the Astrophysical Journal and Astronomical Journal series of supplements.

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Alma detects molecular gas within the sphere of influence of a binary supermassive black hole: Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter, Submillimeter Array (ALMA)  have mapped the molecular gas distribution in NGC 6240, a system of closely fused galaxies that simultaneously develops two supermassive black holes.

NGC 6240 as seen with the SOUL (top right) and the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope (combined image on the left and zoom in the lower right). In the ALMA image, the molecular gas is blue and the black holes are red dots. The ALMA image provides the clearest view of the molecular gas around a black hole in this fused galaxy.

NGC 6240, also known as IC 4625 or UGC 10592, is a pair of fused galaxies 400 million light years away in the constellation of Ofiches.

It extends for 300,000 light years and is a tall figure with branched cone, loops and tail.

This disturbance of gas, dust and stars is more than an obvious resemblance to a butterfly, and perhaps less traditionally beautiful, a lobster.

To understand what is happening within NGC 6240, astronomers want to observe in detail the dust and gas that surround the two black holes, but the above images are not clear to do so.

“The key to understanding this galaxy system is molecular gas,” said Dr. Ezequiel Tristor, an astronomer at the Pontia Universitat Catalisa, said.

“It is the gas fuel necessary to form stars, but it also feeds supermassive black holes, which allow them to grow.”

Most of the gas is in a region between the supermassive black holes of NGC 6240.

Less detailed observations taken earlier suggested that the gas mass may be a rotating disk.

“We found no evidence of that. Instead, we see a chaotic stream of gas with filaments and bubbles between the black holes,” said Dr. Traister.

“Part of this gas is expelled at speeds of up to 500 km / s (342 mi / s). We still don’t know what causes these outings. “

Another reason to observe the molecular gas in NGC 6240 is that it helps determine the mass of a supermassive black hole.

“Previous models, based on surrounding stars, indicated that black holes were approximately one billion times larger than our Sun on a much larger scale than we expected,” said Dr. Said Anne Medling, an astronomer at the University from Toledo.

“But these new images of ALMA show us for the first time how much gas has been trapped within the sphere of influence of the black hole.”

“This mass is important, so we now estimate that the mass of the black hole is smaller: approximately one hundred million times the mass of our Sun.”

“Based on this, we believe that previous measurements of black holes in such systems can be up to 5-89%.”

The gas was also closer to black holes than astronomers.

“It is located in a very extreme environment. We believe that it will eventually collapse into a black hole, or be ejected at high speed, “Dr. Medling said.

In addition, researchers have not discovered evidence of a third supermassive black hole in NGC 6240, which has recently been discovered by another team.

Dr. “We don’t see the molecular gas associated with this claim as the third core,” Treister said.

“It may be a local star cluster instead of a black hole, but we need to study more to say something for sure.”

The findings appear in two articles in the Astrophysical Journal and Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Proxima C: Probably the second planet that is near the nearest neighbor to the Sun: an international team of astronomers has detected a super-Earth planet in orbit around Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun.

Artistic effects of the Proxima Centauri system. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star just 4.23 light years away on the Centaurus planetarium. This small and cold star is not visible to the naked eye and has a very bright pair, Alpha Centauri AB.

In 2016, a rocky planet was discovered in the Proxima Centauri System. Called Proxima B, the planet Earth has a mass and orbits its star at an average distance of 0.05 AU with a period of 11.2 days. It is found within the habitable zone of the star, where liquid water can theoretically exist on the surface.

In 2017, astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA) matrix reported the existence of an unknown source at a distance of 1.6 AU in the system. To understand if the ALMA signal originated on another planet, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino and his coworkers from Drs. Mario Demaso analyzed a 17-year high-speed radio series using an exoplanet detection method that tracks the light spectrum of a star.

If this spectrum oscillates between red and blue, it indicates that the star is moving away from the Earth at regular intervals, a cycle usually caused by the presence of the body in orbit. The astronomers explained. We get to know that the signal is produced over a period of 1,900 days, which suggests that it is not related to cyclic changes in the star’s magnetic field. However, more evidence is needed to confirm this conclusion. “

The candidate has 5.8 times the minimum mass of the Earth, which makes it the so-called super Earth. Nicknamed Proxima C, it has an orbital period of 5.21 years and a surface temperature. Professor Hugh Jones, a member of the team, an astronomer said: “The proximity of the planet and the orbit of its star is one of the best possible opportunities for direct observation of its star.” Hertfordshire University.

In the future, Proxima C may become a potential target for a more direct study by the Breakthrough Starshot Project, humanity’s first attempt to travel to another star system. The team article was published in Science Advance.

Astronomers discovered five new planets around nearby red dwarfs

Astronomers have detected five new planets, eight planetary candidates and confirmed three previously reported planets, about nine M dwarf stars (red dwarfs). Among the new planets, Gliese 180d and Gliese 229Ac are super-lands located in conservative habitable areas of their host stars; Glycea 433C is a super cold Neptune candidate that belongs to a population of unexplained planets like Neptune.

Artistic concept of the Glacie 180 planetary system, located 39 light years away in the Aridanus planetarium. Image credit: Robin Dynell, Carnegie Institution for Science. Artistic concept of the Glacie 180 planetary system, located 39 light years away in the Aridanus planetarium.

M dwarfs are the most common star in our galaxy, the Milky Way, and the primary class of stars known for harboring terrestrial planets. The first planet of land mass was found around the dwarf M. glisee 876.

M dwarfs have been the main target of potentially habitable planets during the last decade because their habitable regions are very close to the star and, therefore, have much shorter periods than the stars, like the sun that orbits the planets that They are habitable.

“Many planets that revolve around red dwarfs in habitable zones are happily closed, which means that they revolve around their axes. This period is similar to the period in which they house their stars.” Orbiting, “Astronomers from the Department of Earth Magnetism of the Carnegie Institute for Science. This is similar to how our Moon is locked on Earth, which means we only see one side from here.

As a result, these exoplanets have very cold permanent nights on one side and very hot permanent days on the other side, which is not good for this habit. The Glisee 180D is the hottest land for us, it’s not locked in its star, which probably increases the likelihood of being a host and sustaining life, he said. Glycé 180D has 7.49 times the minimum mass of the Earth and an orbital period of 106 days.

Artistic concept of Glisee 229Ac, 18.8 light years from Earth. It is the super temperate Earth closest to us in a system, in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion. Image credit: Robin Dynell, Carnegie Institution for Science. Another potentially habitable planet, Glyce 229Ac, is 7.93 times larger than Earth. It revolves around its original star once every 122 days.

This is the closest temperate Earth to us in a system in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion. In this system, the brown dwarf, Glycea 229b, was one of the first brown dwarfs to be copied.

It is not known if they can accommodate exoplanets by themselves, but this planetary system is an external case study of how exoplanets form and evolve in a binary brown star dwarf system. Our discovery adds to the list of planets that could possibly be photographed directly by the next-generation telescopes, Drs. Fang said.

Finally, we are working towards the objective of determining whether planets disturb life, orbiting nearby stars. The planet of masses Neptune Gliese 433C is some distance from its star, where surface water is likely to freeze.

The planet is probably the first realistic candidate to obtain direct images of Neptune. The team traced the three planets Gliese 422b, 433d and 3082b and the seven planetary candidates Gliese 173b.

Ultimately, we want to produce a map of all the planets that orbit the stars closest to our own solar system, especially those that are potentially habitable, “co-author of the Dr. Carnegie Institution Observatory Jeff Crane said: I want an astronomer. Science. The findings appear in two articles in the Astrophysical Journal and Astronomical Journal series of supplements.

Alma detects molecular gas within the influence of a binary supermassive black hole

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA) matrix have mapped the molecular gas distribution in NGC 6240, a system of closely linked galaxies that simultaneously develop two supermassive black holes.

Seen with NGC 6240 SOUL (top right) and the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope (combined image on the left and zoom in the lower right). In the ALMA image, the molecular gas is blue and the black holes are red dots. The image of ALMA provides a clear view of the molecular gas that surrounds a black hole in this fused galaxy.

NGC 6240, also known as IC 4625 or UGC 10592, is a pair of fused galaxies 400 million light years away in the constellations of the Achies. It extends for 300,000 light years and is a tall figure with branched cones, loops and tails. This disturbance of gas, dust and stars is more than an obvious resemblance to a butterfly, and perhaps less traditionally beautiful, a lobster.

To understand what is happening inside NGC 6240, astronomers want to observe in detail the dust and gas that surrounds the two black holes, but the images above are not clear to do so. The key to understanding this galaxy system is molecular gas, an astronomer at the Pontia Universite Catalisa, Dr. Ezequiel Tristar said. It is the gas fuel required to form stars, but it also feeds supermassive black holes, which allow them to grow. “

Most of the gas is in the area between the supermassive black holes of NGC 6240. Detailed observations taken above have shown that the mass of gas can be a rotating disk. We found no evidence of this. Instead, we see a chaotic stream of gas with filaments and bubbles between the black holes, Drs. Tristar said.

Part of this gas is expelled at a speed of 500 km / s (342 mi / s). We still don’t know what those reasons are. Another reason to observe the molecular gas in NGC 6240 is that it helps determine the mass of a supermassive black hole. Previous models based on nearby stars indicated that black holes were approximately one billion times larger than our Sun, which was much larger than we expected, said Dr. Annie Medling, an astronomer at the University of Toledo.

But these new images of ALMA show us for the first time how much gas is trapped in the sphere of influence of the black hole. This mass is important, so we now estimate that the mass of a black hole is small: approximately one hundred million times the mass of our Sun.

Based on this, we believe that previous measurements of black holes in such systems can be up to 5-79%. The gas was also closer to a black hole than astronomers. It is located in a very extreme environment. We believe that it will eventually collapse into a black hole, or be ejected at high speed, “Dr. Medling said.

In addition, researchers have not discovered evidence of a third supermassive black hole in NGC 6240, which has recently been discovered by another team. Trester stated that Drs. We do not refer to the molecular gas associated with this statement as the third core. It may be a local star cluster instead of a black hole, but we definitely need to do more studies to say something.

The findings appear in two articles in the Astrophysical Journal and Astrophysical Journal Letters.

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