NASA test at the Rover New Moon Lunar Operation Laboratory
NASA test at the Rover New Moon Lunar Operation Laboratory

NASA test at the Rover New Moon Lunar Operation Laboratory

NASA test at the Rover New Moon Lunar Operation Laboratory: A Voltile engineering model that explores the Polar Exploration Rover, or VIPER, has been tested at the Simulated Lunar Operation Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

The size of a golf cart, VIPER is a mobile robot that will walk around the South Pole of the Moon, looking for water ice in the region and, for the first time, will take samples of water ice on the same ice. Where the man will land in 2024 as the first woman and the next Artemis program.

The large adjustable earth vessel contains the lunar cement and allows engineers to mimic the moon’s terrain. The engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, where the rover was designed and manufactured, joined Glenn’s team to complete the tests.

The test data will be used to evaluate the traction of the vehicle and the wheels, determine the power requirements for different types of maneuvers and compare methods for crossing steep slopes. Researchers use researchers to protect themselves against the aerial silica present during the tests.

VIPER is a collaboration inside and outside the agency. NASA’s Ames Research Center managed the project, leading the mission science, systems engineering, real-time mobile surface operations and software. Rover’s team is provided by NASA’s KennedySpace Center in Ames, Florida, and its business partner, Honeybee.

Robotics in California. The spacecraft, landing module and launch vehicle that will deliver VIPER to the surface of TheMoonwill will be provided through NASA’s Commercial Lunar Cargo Services program, which will deliver science and technology payloads to and near the Moon.

A second planet may have been found orbiting the Next Centauri! And this is a super meaning: Astronomers have discovered another candidate in orbit around our neighbor Proxima Centauri. An article announcing these results was published only in Science Advances. If confirmed, it will be the second exoplanet that orbits the star.

The artist’s impression shows a view of the surface of the planet Proxima B, orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest red dwarf star to the solar system.

This was great news in 2016 when astronomers discovered a planet that orbits Proxima Centauri (PC), the closest star to our Sun. That planet called Proxima B is potentially habitable, and at that time it was speculated that we could send an explorer robot In just a few decades. The discovery of a second planet, although its possibility of liquid water is far from being its star, is intensifying interest in the PC system.

The inventors of this new planet, Proxima C, say follow-up observations are needed to confirm this as a planet. Changes in the stellar activity of Proxima Centauri indicated the presence of another planet. But they also say that the data they possess cannot be explained in terms of any stellar activity. Due to its proximity and angular separation from the star, it is an ideal candidate for follow-up observations, and even images with next-generation telescopes.

The mass of Proxima C is approximately half that of Neptune and its orbit is approximately 1.5 times greater than that of Earth. Its temperature is approximately -200 C, if it has no atmosphere. Proxima Centauri has been the subject of intense astronomical research over the years, and has ruled out the presence of Jupiter-sized planets between 0.8 and more than 5 astronomical units of the star. But finding Proxima C is still surprising, as its presence defies our model of how super-Lands are formed and developed.

The main author of this study is Mario Damaso of the INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Turin, Italy. The study is titled “A low mass planetary candidate orbiting Proxima Centauri at a distance of deux au”. It was published on January 15, 2020.

Hugh Jones, professor of astrophysics at the University of Hertfordshire, also participated in the study. In an article in “The Conversation,” Jones described how difficult it can be to separate the data that shows the presence of a planet from the data that shows stellar activity on a host planet. “Like our sun, the next ones have spots due to areas of intense magnetic activity that change and come out quickly on a variety of time scales. These characteristics must be taken into account when looking for any planetary sign. “

Like our Sun , Proxima Centauri has sunspots that can confuse astronomers with the discovery of the exoplanet. Sunspots are dark areas on the surface of the sun that are cooler than the surrounding areas. They are formed where magnetic fields are particularly strong.

Although the stellar activity does not match the data, the search engines are cautious, unless the presence of Proxima C can be confirmed or denied in the follow-up observations, and it can certainly control the stellar activity.

The discovery of Exoplanet of this new candidate is contained in this new document, but the story goes back a few years.

Several teams of scientists have Proxima Centauri diarrhea for exoplanets. Most of his work is based on radial velocity data, specifically from HARPS (ESO High Precision Radial Velocity Planet Finder). According to the study, astronomers exclude the presence of certain planets of degree of mass in certain ranges of Au from PCs.

A 1999 study excluded the presence of any planet beyond the 1700 AU of the PC, since the PC itself orbits the Alpha Centauri AB. A 2019 study set an upper limit of 0.3 Jupiter of mass for any planet within 10 AU of the PC. The same study excluded the presence of planets in the mass of Jupiter between 0.3 and 8, between 10 and 50 AU. Other studies impose more restrictions.

But astronomers also know that red dwarfs house more small planets than other types of stars. Then they kept looking.

 

The Breakthrough Starshot Initiative (BSI) believes they can send a small spaceship to Proxima Centauri.

In 2016, when the exoplanet Centauri B was discovered, BSI found work. They think they can send a nanospace with cameras inside a UA on the planet and expect to receive images with any telescope that is more detailed. They say they should be able to return images that show continents and oceans. On its website, the BSI states that “to achieve a resolution comparable to a space telescope in the Earth’s orbit, the telescope must have a diameter of 300 km.”

But even though the PC is “close” to astronomical terms, it is still a great distance. 4.2 At a distance of light years, it will take decades to get there, traveling at a speed of light of 20% (approximately 216,000 kilometers per hour). Currently, the fastest spacecraft is NASA’s Parker solar probe, which will only reach a maximum speed. 692,000 km / h.

But if we can take a spaceship there or not just part of the story. Due to its proximity, the Proxima Centauri system is an observation laboratory to understand other solar systems. And its presence and proximity can inspire the technological development necessary to study it in more detail.

As Hughes Jones stated in his article in The Conversation, “Ultimately, the discovery of many signals from very close stars suggests that planets are more common than stars. Proxima represents an excellent place to develop new techniques to understand exoplanets more close and better understand the universe we have created.

The existence of Proxima C is problematic, or at least important, for our planetary formation model. On super-Earth planets around low-mass stars known for red velocity, Proxima C will have the longest duration and the lowest mass. It would also be the farthest distance from its mother star compared to the Frost line on the original protoplanetary disk. The frost line was probably 0.15 AU.

The authors state that Proxima C is unlikely to be expelled from its initial position near the star due to some instability, “because its orbit is consistent with a circular and the absence of larger planets at shorter orbital distances. By”.

In his article, he states: Beyond the challenges of the snow line, the super-Earth is well formed, according to which the snow line is an ideal point for the super-Earth crash due to the accumulation of solid ice creams in that place.

Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star, or M dwarf. It is about 4.2 light years away from the Sun, making it our closest neighbor. It is the third star in a triangular system, the Alpha Centauri AB being the binary star. Proxima Centauri has approximately 13,000 AU of Alpha Centauri AB, and was discovered in 1915.

It was discovered that “cold Neptune” and two super-Temperate Lands orbited nearby stars: A “cold Neptune” and two potentially habitable worlds are part of a stash of five newly discovered exoplanets and eight exoplanet candidates orbiting near nearby red dwarf stars, led by the team led by Fabo Fang and Paul de Carnegie. The Astrophysical Journal is described in the support series. Butler

The concept of the artist of Robin Dynel, courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science: orbiting two potentially habitable planets GJ180 and GJ229A, are among the stars closest to our own Sun, making them the next generation of space and earth. Let’s make important goals for comments. Telescope based

Both are super-Earth with mass of our planet and 5 and planet 4 times with a rotating period of 108 and 122 days respectively. The planet of mass of Neptune, which is orbiting at a distance of GJ 433, probably freezes on its surface, is perhaps the first of its kind that is a realistic candidate for future direct images.

New types of worlds were discovered using the radial velocity method for planetary exploration, which takes advantage of the fact that not only the gravity of a star affects the orbit of that planet, but also the gravity of the star on the planet. It affects the This creates small wobbles in the star’s orbit that can be detected with advanced equipment. Because of their lower mass, red dwarfs are the primary class of stars around which terrestrial planets can be found using this technique.

The artist concept of the GJ180d, which is for us the closest super-temperate Earth that is not blocked with its own star, makes it more likely that it can house and sustain life. Illustrations are courtesy of Robin Dynel, Carnegie Institution for Science.

Cooler and smaller than our Sun, red dwarfs, also known as M dwarfs, are the most common stars in the galaxy and the primary class of stars known to house terrestrial planets. In addition, compared to other types of stars, red dwarfs can house planets at the right temperature, liquid water on their surfaces in very close orbits compared to other stars found in this so-called “habitable zone.” It is.

“Many of the planets that orbit red dwarfs in the habitable zone are happily closed, which means that the period in which they revolve around their axes is the same period in which they house their stars. We are going to rotate. This is similar to how our Moon is blocked on Earth, which means we once see a side from here.As a result, these exoplanets have very cold permanent nights on one side and very hot permanent days on the other side are not good for the habit. “The GJ180d is the closest temperate super-Earth that doesn’t close to its star, which probably increases the likelihood of being able to house and sustain life.”

The other potentially habitable planet, GJ229Ac, is for us the closest super-temperate Earth located in a system in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion. Sometimes called failed stars, brown dwarfs cannot maintain hydrogen fusion. The brown dwarf in this system, GJ229B, was one of the first brown dwarfs to be copied. It is not known if they can accommodate exoplanets by themselves, but this planetary system is an external case study of how exoplanets form and evolve in a binary star brown dwarf system.

The Ultraviolet and Visual Excel spectrograph of the South Observatory surveyed 33 red dwarf stars, which operated from 2000 to 2007 and were launched in 2009. We have reached the old data for this result, directed by Joker Butler.

Once the objectives were discovered in the UVES archives, the researchers used observations from three planet search devices to increase the accuracy of the data. The Carnegie Planet Finder (PFS) spectrograph in Chile at our Campus Observatory and the Excel High Resolution Spectrometer (HIRES) at the Keck Observatory were critical to this effort. The combination of data from multiple telescopes increases the number and reference time of observations, and reduces instrumental bias, Butler explained.

Astronomers reveal an interstellar thread of one of the basic components of life: Alma and Rosetta trace the match journey. The lead author of a new study, published today in the magazine in the monthly announcement of the Royal Astronomical Society, says Victor Rivilla, “Life appeared on Earth about 4 billion years ago, but we still don’t know the processes that make it possible. “

The new results of the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), of which the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a partner, and the Rosina instrument on the Rosetta board show that phosphorus monoxide is a significant fraction of the puzzle of life original.

With the power of ALMA, which allowed a detailed look at the star-forming region AFGL 5142, astronomers were able to point out that phosphorus-containing molecules are formed, such as phosphorus monoxide. New stars and planetary systems originate in areas such as clouds of gas and dust between the stars, which makes these interstellar clouds the ideal place to begin exploring the basic components of life.

The phosphorus present in our DNA and cell membrane is an essential element for life as we know it. But how it came to the primitive Earth is a mystery. Astronomers have detected the phosphorus journey from star-forming regions to comets using the combined powers of ALMA and the Rosetta probe of the European Space Agency. His research shows that, for the first time, where there are phosphorus-containing molecules, how this element is transported in comets and how a particular molecule may have played an important role in the beginning of life on our planet.

ALMA observations showed that phosphorus-containing molecules are formed primarily as stars. The gas flow of young giant stars opens cavities in interstellar clouds. The molecule forms a molecule rich in phosphorus in the walls of the cavity, through the combined action of the shock and radiation of the star. Astronomers have also shown that phosphorus monoxide is the most abundant phosphorus-containing molecule in the walls of the cavity.

After discovering this molecule in regions of star formation with ALMA, the European team moved to an object of the solar system: the now famous comet 67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko. The idea was to follow the traces of these phosphorus-containing compounds. If the walls of the cavity collapse to form a star, especially less heavy as the Sun, phosphorus monoxide can freeze and get trapped in the grains of icy dust surrounding the new star. Pebbles, rocks and eventually comets, along with those dust grains, become phosphorus monoxide transporters before the star is fully formed.

ROSINA, which means ION and neutral analysis for the Royon Orbiter spectrometer, collected 67P data for two years while Rosetta orbited the comet. Astronomers had previously found signs of phosphorus in Rosina’s data, but they didn’t know what the molecule was doing there. The new study found a clue about Catherine Altweg, principal investigator and author of Rosina, about what the molecule could be after being contacted at an ALMA conference with an astronomer studying the star-forming regions: They said phosphorus monoxide I would be a very likely candidate, so I went back to my data and there it was! “

This first vision of phosphorus monoxide in a comet helps astronomers establish a connection between the star-forming regions where the molecule is formed, until it reaches Earth.

“A combination of ALMA and rosina data has revealed a type of chemical thread throughout the star formation process, in which phosphorus monoxide plays an important role,” says researcher Rivilla of the Archetypal Astrological Observatory of Rivilla, Italy . National Institute of Astrophysics.

“Phosphorus is essential for life,” says Altwegg, “since the comet has probably transported the most organic compounds to Earth, the phosphorus monoxide found in comet 67P that links the link between comets and life on earth”. It can strengthen. “

This complicated trip can be documented due to collaborative efforts among astronomers. “The detection of phosphorus monoxide was clearly thanks to the interdisciplinary exchange between telescopes present on Earth and space,” says Altweig.

This complicated trip can be documented due to collaborative efforts among astronomers. “The detection of phosphorus monoxide was clearly thanks to the interdisciplinary exchange between telescopes present on Earth and space,” says Altweig.

Leonardo Tasty, ESO astronomer and European operations manager at Alma, concluded: “Understanding our cosmic origins, including how common chemical conditions are for the emergence of life, is an important issue in modern astrophysics. While ESO and Alma focus on the observations of molecules in distant young planetary systems, the direct discovery of chemical inventories within our solar system is possible through ESA missions, such as Rosetta. Through the collaboration between ESO and ESA, the synergy between the main terrestrial and space facilities in the world is a powerful asset for European researchers and allows the transformative discoveries reported in this document. “

More information
This research was presented in a document that will be published in the monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The team consists of VM Rivilla (INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence, Italy [INAF-OAA]), MN Drozdovskaya (Center for space and habitability, Bern, Switzerland [CSH]), K. Altwegg (Physikalisches Institut). , University of Bern, Switzerland), p. Casli (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany), MT Beltrán (IAAF-OAA), f. Fontani (INAF-OAA), FFS van der Taek (SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, and Kapetin Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, The Netherlands), R. Cijeroni (INAF-OAAA), a. Vasinin (Federal University of the Urals, Ekaterinburg, Russia and University of Applied Sciences, Latvia), m. Rubin (CSH), f. Lick (LOMC-UMR, CNRS-Université du Havre), s. Marinakis (University of East London, and Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom), l. TESTI (INAF-OAA, ESO Garching and Excellence Cluster “Universe”, Germany), and the ROSINA team (H. Balsiger, JJ Berthelier, J. De Keyser, B. Fiethe, SA Fuselier, S. Gasc, TI Gombosi, T .Semon, CY. Tzou).

The Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is an association of ESO, the US National Science Foundation. UU. (NSF) and the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded on behalf of its member states by the ESF, by the NSF in collaboration with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC), and by the NINS in collaboration with the Academy Sinica (AS) in Taiwan Es. And the Korean Institute of Astronomy and Space Sciences (KASI). The construction and operations of ALMA are led by ESO on behalf of its member states; National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), administered by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; And by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The ALMA Joint Observatory (JAO) provides integrated leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

ESO is the largest intergovernmental astronomical organization in Europe and the most productive terrestrial astronomical observatory in the world. It has 16 member states: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, with the host state of Chile and a partner strategic. As with Australia. ESO carries out an ambitious program focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground observation facilities to allow astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. 

ESO also plays a leading role in the promotion and rationalization of cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observation sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. In Paranál, ESO operates two topographic telescopes, together with the Vary Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which operate in the VISTA infrared and VLT telescopes of visible light. The ESO Paranal will also house and operate the largest and most sensitive gamma ray observatory in the world Cherenkov Telescope Array South. ESO is an important partner in two facilities in Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project that exists. And in the area of the serene arm, near Paranal, ESO is building the extremely large 39-meter telescope, ELT, which will become “the largest eye sky in the world.”

Rosetta is an ESA mission. It was launched in 2004 and was studied in 2014 with comet 67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko while spinning around the Sun. It also deployed

The fusion of old and new microscopy offers the best 3D view inside cells: Combining electron microscopy (MS) with scientists from the latest super resolution microscopy (SR), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and UC Berkeley to get detailed insights on the complex differences of all 3D cells.

In a report in the journal Science Issue, the researchers described their technique, called cryo-SR / EM, and showed some of the colorful images they captured. These include detailed photographs of sunken vesicles that are loaded and classified in the cell, views of a fragile network that connects neighboring neurons in the brain and images of the reorganization of DNA in the nucleus as a stem cell in a neuron. Difference

“The cell is an incredibly complex self-replicating machine with billions of moving parts: molecules. Every imaging technology sees this machine in different but imperfect ways,” co-author Eric Betzig, molecular and cellular. Said a professor of biology and physics at UC Berkeley and a researcher at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. “We bring together two different imaging modalities, since we have Cryo-A R and with MS, it causes penetration into the cellular structure in the nanoscale, which cannot be achieved alone.”

Optical microscopy, for example, facilitates the identification of specific cellular structures by labeling them with easy-to-see fluorescent molecules. With the development by Betzig and others of super resolution fluorescence microscopy (SR), these structures can be seen more clearly. But fluorescence can reveal only a few of the more than 10,000 protein molecules in a cell at any given time, making it difficult to understand how they relate to certain other things.

Electron microscopy, on the other hand, reveals all cellular structures in high-resolution images, but it can be difficult to characterize one characteristic of all others only by MS because the space inside the cells is very full.

The combination of the two techniques gives scientists a clearer picture of the specific cellular characteristics related to their environment, said Harald Hess, a senior group leader at the HHMI Genelia Research Campus. “It’s a very powerful way.”

Genelia’s scientific researcher David Hoffman and senior scientist Gleib Schtezel led the project under the leadership of Hayes and Betzig, who are also senior colleagues of Genelia.

Source: UC Berkeley

5/5

Proxima C: Probably the second planet that is near the nearest neighbor to the Sun: an international team of astronomers has detected a super-Earth planet in orbit around the closest star of the Sun, Proxima Centauri.

Artistic effects of the Proxima Centauri system. Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star just 4.23 light years away on the Centaurus planetarium. This small and cold star is not visible to the naked eye and has a very bright pair, Alpha Centauri AB.

In 2016, a rocky planet was discovered in the Proxima Centauri System. Called Proxima B, the planet is a mass of the Earth and orbits its star at an average distance of 0.05 AU with a period of 11.5 days. It is located within the habitable zone of the star, where liquid water could theoretically exist on the surface.

In 2017, astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA) matrix reported the existence of an unknown source at a distance of 1.6 AU in the system.

To understand if the ALMA signal originated on another planet, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino and his colleagues from Drs. Mario Demaso analyzed a 17-year high-speed radio series using an exoplanet detection method that tracks the light spectrum of a star.

If this spectrum ranges between red and blue, it indicates that the star is moving away from the Earth at regular intervals, usually a cycle due to the presence of the body in orbit. The astronomers explained. We found that the signal is produced over a period of 1,900 days, which suggests that it is not related to cyclic changes in the magnetic field of the star. However, more evidence is needed to confirm this conclusion. “

The candidate has 5.8 times the minimum mass of the Earth, which makes it the so-called super Earth. Nicknamed Proxima C, it has an orbital period of 5.21 years and a surface temperature.

A team member, Professor Hugh Jones, an astronomer said: “The proximity of the planet and the orbit of its star is one of the best possible opportunities for direct observation of its star.” Hertfordshire University. In the future, Proxima C may become a potential target for a more direct study by the Breakthrough Starshot Project, humanity’s first attempt to travel to another star system. The team article was published in Science Advance.

Astronomers discovered five new planets around nearby red dwarfs

Astronomers have detected candidates for five new planets, eight planets and confirmed three previously reported planets on nine M dwarf stars.

Among the new planets, Gliese 180d and Gliese 229Ac are super-lands located in conservative habitable areas of their host stars; Glycea 433C is a super cold Neptune candidate that belongs to a population of unexplained planets like Neptune.

The artistic concept of the 180 glacier planetary system, located 39 light years away in the Eridenus planetarium. Image credit: Robin Dynell, Carnegie Institution for Science. The artistic concept of the 180 glacier planetary system, located 39 light years away in the Eridenus planetarium. M dwarfs are the most common stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way, and the primary class of stars known to house terrestrial planets. The first planet of the dwarf land mass m. Glisee was found around 876.

M dwarfs have been the main targets of potentially habitable planets during the last decade because their habitable regions are very close to the star and therefore have a much shorter duration than the stars, such as the sun that orbits around the planets. “Many of the planets that revolve around red dwarfs in habitable zones are happily closed, which means that they revolve around their axes. This period is similar to the period in which they house their stars.” “Orbiter,” Astronomers of the Department of Earth Magnetism of the Carnegie Institute for Science. This is similar to how our Moon is enclosed on Earth, which means we only see one side from here.

As a result, these exoplanets have very cold permanent nights on one side and very hot permanent days on the other side, which is not good for this habit. The Glacey 180D is the warmest terrain for us, it’s not locked in its own star, which probably increases the likelihood of being a host and sustaining life, he said. Glycé 180D has 7.49 times the minimum mass of the Earth and an orbital period of 106 days.

The artistic concept of Glisee 229Ac, 18.8 light years from Earth. It is the temperate Earth closest to us in a system, in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion. Image credit: Robin Dynell, Carnegie Institution for Science. Another potentially habitable planet, Glycea 229Ac, is 7.93 times larger than Earth. It revolves around its original star once every 122 days.

It is the temperate Earth closest to us in a system in which the host star has a brown dwarf companion. In this system, the brown dwarf, Glycea 229b, was one of the first brown dwarfs to be copied.

It is not known if they can accommodate exoplanets by themselves, but this planetary system is an external case study of how exoplanets form and evolve in a binary system of brown stellar dwarfs. Our discovery adds to the list of planets that could possibly be photographed directly by the next generation telescope, DRS. Fang said.

Finally, we are working with the purpose of determining if the planets disturb life, orbiting nearby stars. The planet Neptune Gliese in mass 433 C is some distance from its star, where surface water is likely to freeze. The planet is likely to be the first realistic candidate to receive direct images of Neptune. The team traced the three planets Gliese 422b, 433d and 3082b, and the seven planetary candidates Gliese 173b.

Ultimately, we want to produce a map of all the planets that orbit around the stars closest to our own solar system, especially those that are potentially habitable, “co-authored by Dr. Carnegie Institution Observatory Jeff Crane.” The writer said: “I want an astronomer. Science. The findings appear in two articles in the Astrophysical Journal and Astronomical Journal series of supplements. “

Alma detects molecular gas under the influence of a binary supermassive black hole

Astronomers using the Atkama Large Millimeter-Submillimeter Array (ALMA) matrix have mapped the molecular gas distribution in NGC 6240, a system of closely linked galaxies that simultaneously develop two supermassive black holes. Seen with NGC 6240 SOUL (top right) and the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope (combined image on the left and zoom in the lower right). In the ALMA image, the molecular gas is blue and the black holes are red dots. The image of ALMA provides a clear view of the molecular gas that surrounds a black hole in this fused galaxy.

NGC 6240, also known as IC 4625 or UGC 10592, is a pair of fused galaxies 400 million light years away in the constellations of Achis. It extends for 300,000 light years and is a tall figure with branched cones, loops and tails. This disturbance of gas, dust and stars is more than an obvious resemblance to a butterfly, and perhaps less traditionally beautiful, a lobster.

To understand what is happening inside NGC 6240, astronomers want to observe in detail the dust and gas that surrounds the two black holes, but the images above are not clear to do so. The key to understanding this galaxy system is molecular gas, an astronomer from the Pontia Universite Catalisa, Drs. Ezequiel Tristar said. It is the gas fuel required to form stars, but it also feeds supermassive black holes, which allow them to grow. “

Most of the gas is in the area between the supermassive black holes of NGC 6240. The above detailed observation showed that the mass of the gas can be a rotating disk. We found no evidence of this. Instead, we see a chaotic stream of gas with black holes, filaments and bubbles between the DRs. Tristar said.

We still don’t know what those reasons are. Another reason to observe the molecular gas in NGC 6240 is that it helps determine the mass of a supermassive black hole. Previous models based on nearby stars indicated that the black hole was approximately one billion times larger than our Sun, which was much larger than we expected, said Dr. Annie Medling, an astronomer at the University of Toledo.

But these new images of ALMA show us for the first time how much gas is trapped in the sphere of influence of the black hole. The gas was also closer to a black hole than astronomers. It is located in a very extreme environment. We believe that it will eventually collapse into a black hole, or be ejected at high speed, “Dr. Medling said.

In addition, researchers have not discovered evidence of a third supermassive black hole in NGC 6240, which has recently been discovered by another team. Truster said D.R. We do not refer to the molecular gas associated with this statement as the third origin. It may be a local star cluster instead of a black hole, but we definitely need to study more to say something.

The findings appear in two articles in the Astrophysical Journal and Astrophysical Journal Letters.

NASA tests at the Rover New Moon Lunar Operation Laboratory

A volatile engineering model discovered by Polar Exploration Rover, or VIPER, was tested at the Simulated Lunar Operation Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

The size of a golf cart, VIPER is a mobile robot that will rotate around the South Pole of the Moon, search for water ice in the region and take samples of water ice on the same ice for the first time. Where the male will land as the first female in 2024 and the next Artemis program. The large adjustable earth container contains lunar cement and allows engineers to mimic the moon’s terrain. The engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, where the rover was designed and manufactured, joined Glenn’s team to complete the tests.

The test data will be used to evaluate the traction of the vehicle and the wheels, determine the power requirements for different types of maneuvers and compare methods for crossing steep slopes. Researchers use researchers to protect themselves against the aerial silica present during the tests. VIPER is a collaboration inside and outside the agency. NASA’s AIIMS Research Center managed the project, leading the mission science, systems engineering, real-time surface mobile operations and software. Rover’s team is provided by NASA’s KennedySpace Center in AIIMS, Florida, and its business partner Honeybee.

Robotics in California. Spaceships, landing modules and launch vehicles that transport VIPER to the surface of TheMoonwill will be provided through NASA’s Commercial Lunar Cargo Services Program, which will deliver science and technology payloads to and near the Moon.

A second planet could have been found orbiting the next Centauri! And this is a super meaning.

Astronomers have discovered another candidate in orbit around our neighbor Proxima Centauri. An article announcing these results was published only in Science Advances. If confirmed, this would be the second exoplanet that orbits the star. The artist’s impression shows a view of the surface of the planet Proxima B, orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest red dwarf star to the solar system.

This was great news in 2016 when astronomers discovered a planet that orbits Proxima Centauri (PC), the closest star to our Sun. That planet, called Proxima B, is potentially habitable, and at that time it was estimated that we could send a Explorer robot in just a few decades. The discovery of a second planet, although its liquid water is probably far from its star, is intensifying interest in the PC system.

The inventor of this new planet, Proxima C, states that follow-up observations are needed to confirm it as a planet. Changes in the stellar activity of Proxima Centauri indicated the presence of another planet. But they also say that the data they possess cannot be explained in terms of any stellar activity. Due to its proximity to the star and angular separation, it is an ideal candidate for follow-up observations, and also with next-generation telescopes.

The mass of Proxima C is approximately half that of Neptune and its orbit is approximately 1.5 times greater than that of Earth. Its temperature is around -200 C, if it has no atmosphere. Proxima Centauri has been the subject of intense astronomical research for years, and has ruled out that the presence of Jupiter-sized planets is between 0.8 and 5 stars in more than 5 astronomical units. But finding Proxima C is still surprising, as its presence tells our model of how the super lands are formed and developed. The main author of this study is Mario Damaso of the INAF Astrophysical Observatory in Turin, Italy. The study is titled “A low mass planetary candidate orbiting Proxima Centauri at a distance from Deux Au”. It was published on January 15, 2020.

Hugh Jones, professor of astrophysics at the University of Hertfordshire, also participated in the study. In an article in “The Conversation,” Jones described how difficult it can be to separate data that reflects the presence of a planet from data that shows the presence of a planet. “Like our sun, the following have spots due to areas with intense magnetic activity that change and emit rapidly on a variety of time scales. These characteristics must be taken into account when looking for any planetary sign. “

Like our Sun <up>, Proxima Centauri has sunspots that can confuse astronomers with the discovery of the exoplanet. Sunspots are dark areas on the surface of the sun that are cooler than the surrounding areas. They are formed where magnetic fields are particularly strong. However, stellar activity does not match the data, search engines are cautious, unless the presence of Proxima C in subsequent observations can be confirmed or refuted, and it can certainly control stellar activity.

Exoplanet’s search for this new candidate is contained in this new document, but the story goes back a few years. Many teams of scientists have diarrhea due to nearby centauria for exoplanets. Most of his work is based on radial velocity data, specifically from HARPS (ESO High Precision Radial Velocity Planet Finder). According to the study, astronomers exclude the presence of certain planets of degrees of mass in certain ranges from PC to Au.

A 1999 study excluded the presence of any planet beyond the 1700 AU of the PC, since the PC itself orbits the Alpha Centauri AB. The 2019 study set the upper limit of Jupiter’s mass for any planet within 10 AU of the PC. In the same study, the presence of planets in the mass of Jupiter remained between 0.3 and 8, between 10 and 50 AU. Other studies impose more restrictions. But astronomers also know that red dwarfs house more small planets than other types of stars. Then they kept looking.

The Breakthrough Starshot Initiative (BSI) believes they can send a small spaceship to Proxima Centauri.

In 2016, when the Centauri B Exoplanet was discovered, BSI found work. They think they can send a nanospace with cameras inside a UA on the planet and expect to receive images with any telescope that is more detailed. They say they should be able to return images that show continents and oceans. On its website, the BSI states that “to achieve a resolution equivalent to a space telescope in the Earth’s orbit, the telescope must have a diameter of 300 km.”

But even though the PC is “close” to astronomical terms, it is still at a great distance. 6.2 At a distance of light years, it will take decades to get there, traveling at a speed of light of 20% (approximately 2117,000 kilometers per hour). Currently, the fastest spacecraft is NASA’s Parker solar probe, which will only reach a maximum speed. 692,000 km / h.

But if we can take a spaceship there or just not be part of the story. Due to its proximity, the Proxima Centauri system is an observation laboratory to understand other solar systems. And its presence and proximity can inspire the technological development necessary to study it in more detail. As Hugh Jones stated in his article in The Conversation, “Ultimately, the discovery of many signs of very close stars suggests that planets are more common than stars. To better understand and understand Exoplanets from Next. It represents an excellent place To develop new technologies.

The existence of Proxima C is problematic, or at least important, for our planetary formation model. On super-Earth planets around low-mass stars known for their red velocity, Proxima C will have the longest duration and the lowest mass. It would also be the farthest distance from its mother star compared to the Frost line on the original protoplanetary disk. The frost line was probably 0.15 AU. The authors claim that Proxima C is unlikely to be ejected from its initial position near the star due to some instability, “because its orbit is consistent with a circular and the absence of large planets at short orbital distances.”

In his article, he states: Beyond the challenges of the ice line, the super-Earth is well formed, according to which the ice land is an ideal point for super crashes due to the deposition of solid ice currents In that location. . Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star, or M dwarf. It is about 4.2 light years away from the Sun, making it our closest neighbor. It is the third star in a triangular system, the binary star Alpha Centauri AB.

A “cold Neptune” and two potentially habitable worlds are part of a group of five newly discovered exoplanets and eight exoplanet candidates orbiting near nearby red dwarf stars, led by Phebo Fang and Paul de Carnegie The team is doing it. The Astrophysical Journal is described in the Support Series. The artist’s concept of Robin Dynell, courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science: orbiting two potentially habitable planets GJ180 and GJ229A, are among the closest stars to our own sun, making them the next generation of space and Earth. Make important goals for comments. Telescope based

Both are super-Earth with mass of our planet and 5 more planets with rotational periods of 108 and 122 days respectively. Neptune’s planet of mass, orbiting at a distance of GJ 433, possibly accumulates on its surface, possibly the first of its kind that is a realistic candidate for future direct images.

New types of worlds were discovered using the radial velocity method for planetary exploration, which takes advantage of the fact that not only the gravity of a star affects the planet’s orbit, but also the star’s gravity on the planet Also affects. This affects how it makes small wobbles in the star’s orbit that can be detected with advanced equipment. Due to their low mass, red dwarfs are the primary class of stars around which terrestrial planets can be found using this technique.

The artist concept of the GJ180d, which for us is the nearest super-temperate Earth that is not blocked with its own star, makes it more likely that it can sustain home and life. Pictures are courtesy of Robin Dynell, Carnegie Institution for Science.

Cooler and smaller than our Sun, the red dwarfs, also known as the M dwarf, are the most common stars in the galaxy and the primary class of stars that house terrestrial planets. Also, compared to other types of stars, the red dwarf can give the planets at the right temperature, liquid water on their surface in very close orbits compared to other stars found in this so-called “habitable zone”. this is.

“Many of the planets orbiting red dwarfs in the habitable zone have happily closed, which means that the period in which they revolve around their axes is the same period in which they house their stars. We rotate Going. It’s the same. How our moon on Earth is blocked, which means we once look at one side from here. As a result, these exoplanets have very cold permanent Ra on one side. होती and on the other hand very hot lasting days are not good for habit. “GJ180d is a near-temperate super-Earth that is not close to its star, which likely increases the likelihood of being able to maintain home and life. is. “

The other potentially habitable planet, GJ229Ac, is for us the closest super-temperate Earth located in a system, which has a brown dwarf companion to the host star. Sometimes called failed stars, brown dwarfs cannot maintain hydrogen fusion. The brown dwarf in this system, GJ229B, was one of the first brown dwarfs to imitate. It is not known whether they can accommodate exoplanets by themselves, but this planetary system is an external case study of how exoplanets are formed and evolve into a binary star brown dwarf system.

The ultraviolet and visual Excel spectrograph of the South Observatory surveyed 33 red dwarf stars, which operated from 2000 to 2007 and were launched in 2009. We have access to old data of this result, directed by Joker Butler.

Once the objectives were discovered in the UVES archives, researchers used observations from three planetary search tools to increase the accuracy of the data. The Carnegie Planet Finder (PFS) spectrograph in Chile at our Campus Observatory and the Excel High Resolution Spectrometer (HIRES) at Cane Observatory were critical to this effort. Combining data from multiple telescopes increases the number of observations and the reference time, and reduces instrumental biases, Butler explained.

Astronomers have revealed the interstellar thread of one of the basic components of life.

Alma and Rosetta explore the party’s journey. The lead author of a new study, published today in the magazine, in the monthly announcement of the Royal Astronomical Society, says Victor Rivilla, “Life appeared on Earth about 4 billion years ago, but we still don’t know the processes that make it possible. “

The new results of the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), of which the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a partner, and the Rosina instrument on the Rosetta board show that phosphorus monoxide is an important part of the puzzle of life .

With the power of ALMA, which allowed a detailed look at the AFGL 5142 star-forming region, astronomers were able to indicate that phosphorus-containing molecules are formed, such as phosphorus monoxide. New stars and planetary systems originate in areas such as clouds of gas and dust between the stars, making these interstellar clouds an ideal place to begin exploring the basic components of life.

The phosphorus present in our DNA and cell membrane is an essential element for life as we know it. But how this primitive arrived on Earth is a mystery. Astronomers have detected phosphorus trips from star-forming regions to comets using the combined powers of the ALMA Rosetta probe and the European Space Agency. His research shows that, for the first time, where there are molecules that contain phosphorus, how this element is transported to the comet and how a particular molecule may have played an important role in the beginning of life on our planet.

Alma’s observations showed that phosphorus-containing molecules are formed primarily as stars. The gas flow of the young giant stars opens cavities in the clouds between stars. The molecule creates phosphorus-rich molecules in the walls of the cavity, through the combined action of shock and radiation from the star. Astronomers have also shown that phosphorus monoxide is the most abundant phosphorus-rich molecule in the walls of the cavity.

After the discovery of this molecule in star-forming regions with ALMA, the European team changed to an object of the solar system: the now famous comet 67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko. The idea was to follow the traces of these phosphorus-containing compounds. If the walls of the cavity collapse like a star, especially less heavy like the Sun, then phosphorus monoxide can freeze and get caught in the grains of icy dust around the new star. Pebbles, rocks and eventually comets, along with those dust grains, become phosphorus monoxide transporters before the star is fully formed.

Rosina, which means neutral analysis for the Eoin and Royan orbiter spectrometers, collected 67P data for two years while Rosetta orbited the comet. Astronomers previously found signs of phosphorus in Rosina’s data, but they didn’t know what the molecule was doing there. The new study found a clue about Rossina’s principal investigator and author, Katherine Altweg, who can study star-forming regions after contacting an astronomer at an ALEMA conference: she said phosphate monoxide is very likely. . Candidates, so I went back to my data and there it was! “

This first vision of phosphorus monoxide in a comet helps astronomers establish a connection between the star-forming regions where the molecule is formed, until it reaches Earth. “The combination of allma and rosina data has revealed a type of chemical thread during the star formation process, in which phosphorus monoxide plays an important role,” says researcher Rivilla of the Archetypal Astrological Observatory in Risia, Italy. National Institute of Astrophysics.

Phosphorus is essential for life, “says Altweg,” since the comet has probably delivered most of the organic compounds to Earth, the phosphorus monoxide found in comet 67P, which links the bond between comets and Life on earth. “It can be strengthened. This complex trip can be documented due to collaborative efforts among astronomers, says Altweig.” Phosphorus monoxide detection is clearly due to the interdisciplinary exchange between telescopes on Earth and space. It was, “says Altwig.

This complex trip can be documented due to collaborative efforts among astronomers. “The detection of phosphorus monoxide was evidently thanks to the interdisciplinary exchange between telescopes present on Earth and space,” says Altvig.

Leonardo Tasty, ESO astronomer and European operations manager at Aloma, concluded: “Understanding our cosmic origins, including the general chemical conditions for the origin of life, is an important topic in modern astrophysics. While ESO and Alma focus on the observations of molecules in distant young planetary systems, direct exploration of chemical inventions within our solar system is possible through ESA missions, such as Rosetta. Through the collaboration between ESO and ESA, the synergy between the main terrestrial and spatial characteristics of the world is a powerful asset for European researchers and allows the transformative discoveries described in this document.

The Antacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, ESO, is a consortium of the US National Science Foundation. UU. Tu tu (NSF) and the National Institute of Natural Sciences (NINS) in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded on behalf of its member states by NSF in collaboration with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC), and by NINS in collaboration with Academy Rica. AS) in Taiwan Es. And the Korean Institute of Astronomy and Space Sciences (KASI). ALMA is manufactured and operated by ESO on behalf of its member states; Administered by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) on behalf of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), North America; And by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The ALMA Joint Observatory (JAO) provides integrated leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA.

ESO is the largest intergovernmental astronomical organization in Europe and the most productive terrestrial astronomical observatory in the world. It has 16 member countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, with the host state of Chile and a strategic partner . As with Australia. ESO carries out an ambitious program focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground observation facilities to enable astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in the promotion and rationalization of cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observation sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. In Paranal, ESO operates two topographic telescopes, along with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which operate with the VISTA infrared and VLT visible light telescopes. ESO Paranal will also operate and operate the Chernakov Telescope Array South, the world’s largest and most sensitive gamma ray observatory. ESO is an important partner in the two facilities in the largest astronomical project present in Cheznantor, APEX and ALMA. And in the Serene Hand area near Paranal, ESO is building an extremely large 39-meter telescope, which will become “the world’s largest eye sky.”

The fusion of old and new microscopy provides the best 3D view within cells.

Electron microscopy (MS) with scientists from the latest Super Resolution Microscopy (SR), Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and UC Berkeley to obtain detailed information on the complex differences of all 3D cells. In a report in the journal Science Issue, the researchers described their technique, called cryo-SR / EM, and showed some color images they captured. These include detailed photographs of the sun’s vesicles that have been loaded and classified in the cell, the idea of ​​a delicate network that connects neighboring neurons in the brain and reconstructs the DNA in the nucleus as a stem cell in a neuron. .

“The cell is an incredibly complex self-replicating machine with billions of moving parts: molecules. Every imaging technology sees this machine in a different but incomplete way,” co-author Eric Betzig, molecular and cellular. Said a professor of biology and physics at UC Berkeley and a researcher at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. “We bring two different imaging modalities, because we have cryo-AR and with MS, it causes penetration into the nanoscale cell structure, which cannot be achieved alone.”

Optical microscopy, for example, facilitates the identification of specific cellular structures by labeling them with easy-to-see fluorescent molecules. With the development of Betzig and other super resolution fluorescence microscopy (SR), these structures can be seen more clearly. But fluorescence can reveal only some of the more than 10,000 protein molecules in a cell at any given time, making it difficult to understand how they relate to certain other things.

On the other hand, electron microscopy reveals all cellular structures in high-resolution images, but it can be difficult to characterize only one characteristic of all others by MS because the space inside the cells is very full. The combination of the two techniques gives scientists a clearer picture of the specific cellular characteristics related to their environment, said Harald Hess, a senior group leader at the HHMI Genelia Research Campus. “It’s a very powerful way.”

Genelia’s scientific researcher David Hoffman and senior scientist Gleib Schatzel led the project under the leadership of Hayes and Betzig, who are also main contributors to Genelia.

Source: UC Berkeley

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