NASA test at the Rover New Moon Lunar Operation Laboratory: A Voltile engineering model that explores the Polar Exploration Rover, or VIPER, has been tested at the Simulated Lunar Operation Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.
The size of a golf cart, VIPER is a mobile robot that will walk around the South Pole of the Moon, looking for water ice in the region and, for the first time, will take samples of water ice on the same ice.
Where the man will land in 2024 as the first woman and the next Artemis program. The large adjustable earth vessel contains the lunar cement and allows engineers to mimic the moon’s terrain.
The engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, where the rover was designed and manufactured, joined Glenn’s team to complete the tests. The test data will be used to evaluate the traction of the vehicle.
And the wheels, determine the power requirements for different types of maneuvers and compare methods for crossing steep slopes. Researchers use researchers to protect themselves against the aerial silica present during the tests.
VIPER is a collaboration inside and outside the agency. NASA’s Ames Research Center managed the project, leading the mission science, systems engineering, real-time mobile surface operations and software.
Rover’s team is provided by NASA’s KennedySpace Center in Ames, Florida, and its business partner, Honeybee. Robotics in California. The spacecraft, landing module.
And launch vehicle that will deliver VIPER to the surface of The Moonwill will be provided through NASA’s Commercial Lunar Cargo Services program, which will deliver science and technology payloads to and near the Moon.
An article announcing these results was published only in Science Advances. If confirmed, it will be the second exoplanet that orbits the star. The artist’s impression shows a view of the surface of the planet Proxima B.
And orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest red dwarf star to the solar system. This was great news in 2016 when astronomers discovered a planet that orbits Proxima Centauri (PC), the closest star to our Sun.
That planet called Proxima B is potentially habitable, and at that time it was speculated that we could send an explorer robot In just a few decades. The discovery of a second planet.
Although its possibility of liquid water is far from being its star, is intensifying interest in the PC system. The inventors of this new planet, Proxima C, say follow-up observations are needed to confirm this as a planet.
Changes in the stellar activity of Proxima Centauri indicated the presence of another planet. But they also say that the data they possess cannot be explained in terms of any stellar activity.
Due to its proximity and angular separation from the star, it is an ideal candidate for follow-up observations, and even images with next-generation telescopes. The mass of Proxima C is approximately half that of Neptune.
And its orbit is approximately 1.5 times greater than that of Earth. Its temperature is approximately -200 C, if it has no atmosphere. Proxima Centauri has been the subject of intense astronomical research over the years.
And has ruled out the presence of Jupiter-sized planets between 0.8 and more than 5 astronomical units of the star. But finding Proxima C is still surprising, as its presence defies our model of how super-Lands are formed and developed.
The main author of this study is Mario Damaso of the INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Turin, Italy. The study is titled “A low mass planetary candidate orbiting Proxima Centauri at a distance of deux au”.
It was published on January 15, 2020. Hugh Jones, professor of astrophysics at the University of Hertfordshire, also participated in the study. In an article in “The Conversation,” Jones described how difficult it can be to separate the data.
And that shows the presence of a planet from the data that shows stellar activity on a host planet. “Like our sun, the next ones have spots due to areas of intense magnetic activity that change.
And come out quickly on a variety of time scales. These characteristics must be taken into account when looking for any planetary sign. Like our Sun , Proxima Centauri has sunspots that can confuse astronomers with the discovery of the exoplanet.
Sunspots are dark areas on the surface of the sun that are cooler than the surrounding areas. They are formed where magnetic fields are particularly strong. Although the stellar activity does not match the data.
The search engines are cautious, unless the presence of Proxima C can be confirmed or denied in the follow-up observations, and it can certainly control the stellar activity.
The discovery of Exoplanet of this new candidate is contained in this new document, but the story goes back a few years. Several teams of scientists have Proxima Centauri diarrhea for exoplanets.
Most of his work is based on radial velocity data, specifically from HARPS (ESO High Precision Radial Velocity Planet Finder). According to the study, astronomers exclude the presence of certain planets of degree of mass in certain ranges of Au from PCs.
A 1999 study excluded the presence of any planet beyond the 1700 AU of the PC, since the PC itself orbits the Alpha Centauri AB. A 2019 study set an upper limit of 0.3 Jupiter of mass for any planet within 10 AU of the PC.
The same study excluded the presence of planets in the mass of Jupiter between 0.3 and 8, between 10 and 50 AU. Other studies impose more restrictions.
But astronomers also know that red dwarfs house more small planets than other types of stars. Then they kept looking. The Breakthrough Starshot Initiative (BSI) believes they can send a small spaceship to Proxima Centauri.
In 2016, when the exoplanet Centauri B was discovered, BSI found work. They think they can send a nanospace with cameras inside a UA on the planet and expect to receive images with any telescope that is more detailed.
They say they should be able to return images that show continents and oceans. On its website, the BSI states that “to achieve a resolution comparable to a space telescope in the Earth’s orbit, the telescope must have a diameter of 300 km.”
But even though the PC is “close” to astronomical terms, it is still a great distance. 4.2 At a distance of light years, it will take decades to get there, traveling at a speed of light of 20% (approximately 216,000 kilometers per hour).
Currently, the fastest spacecraft is NASA’s Parker solar probe, which will only reach a maximum speed. 692,000 km / h. But if we can take a spaceship there or not just part of the story.
Due to its proximity, the Proxima Centauri system is an observation laboratory to understand other solar systems. And its presence and proximity can inspire the technological development necessary to study it in more detail.
Proxima represents an excellent place to develop new techniques to understand exoplanets more close and better understand the universe we have created.
The existence of Proxima C is problematic, or at least important, for our planetary formation model. On super-Earth planets around low-mass stars known for red velocity, Proxima C will have the longest duration and the lowest mass.
It would also be the farthest distance from its mother star compared to the Frost line on the original protoplanetary disk. The frost line was probably 0.15 AU.
The authors state that Proxima C is unlikely to be expelled from its initial position near the star due to some instability, “because its orbit is consistent with a circular and the absence of larger planets at shorter orbital distances. By”.
In his article, he states: Beyond the challenges of the snow line, the super-Earth is well formed, according to which the snow line is an ideal point for the super-Earth crash due to the accumulation of solid ice creams in that place.
Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star, or M dwarf. It is about 4.2 light years away from the Sun, making it our closest neighbor. It is the third star in a triangular system.
And two super-Temperate Lands orbited nearby stars: A “cold Neptune” and two potentially habitable worlds are part of a stash of five newly discovered exoplanets and eight exoplanet candidates orbiting near nearby red dwarf stars.
And led by the team led by Fabo Fang and Paul de Carnegie. The Astrophysical Journal is described in the support series. The concept of the artist of Robin Dynel, courtesy of the Carnegie Institution for Science.
And orbiting two potentially habitable planets GJ180 and GJ229A, are among the stars closest to our own Sun, making them the next generation of space and earth. Let’s make important goals for comments. Telescope based
Both are super-Earth with mass of our planet and 5 and planet 4 times with a rotating period of 108 and 122 days respectively. The planet of mass of Neptune, which is orbiting at a distance of GJ 433.
Probably freezes on its surface, is perhaps the first of its kind that is a realistic candidate for future direct images. New types of worlds were discovered using the radial velocity method for planetary exploration.
Which takes advantage of the fact that not only the gravity of a star affects the orbit of that planet, but also the gravity of the star on the planet. It affects the This creates small wobbles in the star’s orbit that can be detected with advanced equipment.
Because of their lower mass, red dwarfs are the primary class of stars around which terrestrial planets can be found using this technique. The artist concept of the GJ180d.
Which is for us the closest super-temperate Earth that is not blocked with its own star, makes it more likely that it can house and sustain life. Illustrations are courtesy of Robin Dynel, Carnegie Institution for Science.
Cooler and smaller than our Sun, red dwarfs, also known as M dwarfs, are the most common stars in the galaxy and the primary class of stars known to house terrestrial planets.
In addition, compared to other types of stars, red dwarfs can house planets at the right temperature, liquid water on their surfaces in very close orbits compared to other stars found in this so-called “habitable zone.”
Many of the planets that orbit red dwarfs in the habitable zone are happily closed, which means that the period in which they revolve around their axes is the same period in which they house their stars.
And very hot permanent days on the other side are not good for the habit. The GJ180d is the closest temperate super-Earth that doesn’t close to its star, which probably increases the likelihood of being able to house and sustain life.
Sometimes called failed stars, brown dwarfs cannot maintain hydrogen fusion. The brown dwarf in this system, GJ229B, was one of the first brown dwarfs to be copied.
The Ultraviolet and Visual Excel spectrograph of the South Observatory surveyed 33 red dwarf stars, which operated from 2000 to 2007 and were launched in 2009. We have reached the old data for this result, directed by Joker Butler.
The Carnegie Planet Finder (PFS) spectrograph in Chile at our Campus Observatory and the Excel High Resolution Spectrometer (HIRES) at the Keck Observatory were critical to this effort.
The combination of data from multiple telescopes increases the number and reference time of observations, and reduces instrumental bias, Butler explained. Astronomers reveal an interstellar thread of one of the basic components of life.
Alma and Rosetta trace the match journey. The lead author of a new study. Published today in the magazine in the monthly announcement of the Royal Astronomical Society, says Victor Rivilla,
Life appeared on Earth about 4 billion years ago, but we still don’t know the processes that make it possible. The new results of the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA).
Which the European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a partner, and the Rosina instrument on the Rosetta board show that phosphorus monoxide is a significant fraction of the puzzle of life original.
With the power of ALMA, which allowed a detailed look at the star-forming region AFGL 5142, astronomers were able to point out that phosphorus-containing molecules are formed, such as phosphorus monoxide.
New stars and planetary systems originate in areas such as clouds of gas and dust between the stars, which makes these interstellar clouds the ideal place to begin exploring the basic components of life.
The phosphorus present in our DNA and cell membrane is an essential element for life as we know it. But how it came to the primitive Earth is a mystery.
Astronomers have detected the phosphorus journey from star-forming regions to comets using the combined powers of ALMA and the Rosetta probe of the European Space Agency.
His research shows that, for the first time, where there are phosphorus-containing molecules, how this element is transported in comets and how a particular molecule may have played an important role in the beginning of life on our planet.
ALMA observations showed that phosphorus-containing molecules are formed primarily as stars. The gas flow of young giant stars opens cavities in interstellar clouds.
The molecule forms a molecule rich in phosphorus in the walls of the cavity, through the combined action of the shock and radiation of the star. Astronomers have also shown that phosphorus monoxide is the most abundant phosphorus-containing molecule in the walls of the cavity.
After discovering this molecule in regions of star formation with ALMA, the European team moved to an object of the solar system: the now famous comet 67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko.
The idea was to follow the traces of these phosphorus-containing compounds. If the walls of the cavity collapse to form a star, especially less heavy as the Sun, phosphorus monoxide can freeze.
And get trapped in the grains of icy dust surrounding the new star. Pebbles, rocks and eventually comets, along with those dust grains, become phosphorus monoxide transporters before the star is fully formed.
ROSINA, which means ION and neutral analysis for the Royon Orbiter spectrometer, collected 67P data for two years while Rosetta orbited the comet.
Astronomers had previously found signs of phosphorus in Rosina’s data, but they didn’t know what the molecule was doing there. The new study found a clue about Catherine Altweg.
Principal investigator and author of Rosina, about what the molecule could be after being contacted at an ALMA conference with an astronomer studying the star-forming regions.
They said phosphorus monoxide I would be a very likely candidate, so I went back to my data and there it was! This first vision of phosphorus monoxide in a comet helps astronomers establish a connection between the star-forming regions where the molecule is formed, until it reaches Earth.
A combination of ALMA and rosina data has revealed a type of chemical thread throughout the star formation process, in which phosphorus monoxide plays an important role, says researcher Rivilla of the Archetypal Astrological Observatory of Rivilla, Italy .
National Institute of Astrophysics – “Phosphorus is essential for life,” says Altwegg, “since the comet has probably transported the most organic compounds to Earth.
The phosphorus monoxide found in comet 67P that links the link between comets and life on earth. It can strengthen. This complicated trip can be documented due to collaborative efforts among astronomers.
The detection of phosphorus monoxide was clearly thanks to the interdisciplinary exchange between telescopes present on Earth and space, says Altweig.
This complicated trip can be documented due to collaborative efforts among astronomers. “The detection of phosphorus monoxide was clearly thanks to the interdisciplinary exchange between telescopes present on Earth and space,” says Altweig.
Leonardo Tasty, ESO astronomer and European operations manager at Alma, concluded: “Understanding our cosmic origins, including how common chemical conditions are for the emergence of life, is an important issue in modern astrophysics.
While ESO and Alma focus on the observations of molecules in distant young planetary systems, the direct discovery of chemical inventories within our solar system is possible through ESA missions, such as Rosetta.
Through the collaboration between ESO and ESA, the synergy between the main terrestrial and space facilities in the world is a powerful asset for European researchers and allows the transformative discoveries reported in this document.
And the most productive terrestrial astronomical observatory in the world. It has 16 member states: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland.
And the United Kingdom, with the host state of Chile and a partner strategic. As with Australia. ESO carries out an ambitious program focused on the design, construction.
And operation of powerful ground observation facilities to allow astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in the promotion and rationalization of cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observation sites in Chile.
La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. In Paranál, ESO operates two topographic telescopes, together with the Vary Large Telescope and its world-leading Very Large Telescope Interferometer.
Which operate in the VISTA infrared and VLT telescopes of visible light. The ESO Paranal will also house and operate the largest and most sensitive gamma ray observatory in the world Cherenkov Telescope Array South.
ESO is an important partner in two facilities in Chajnantor, APEX and ALMA, the largest astronomical project that exists. And in the area of the serene arm, near Paranal, ESO is building the extremely large 39-meter telescope, ELT.
Which will become “the largest eye sky in the world. Rosetta is an ESA mission. It was launched in 2004 and was studied in 2014 with comet 67P / Churyumov – Gerasimenko while spinning around the Sun. It also deployed..
The fusion of old and new microscopy offers the best 3D view inside cells: Combining electron microscopy (MS) with scientists from the latest super resolution microscopy (SR).
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and UC Berkeley to get detailed insights on the complex differences of all 3D cells. In a report in the journal Science Issue.
The researchers described their technique, called cryo-SR / EM, and showed some of the colorful images they captured. These include detailed photographs of sunken vesicles that are loaded and classified in the cell.
Views of a fragile network that connects neighboring neurons in the brain and images of the reorganization of DNA in the nucleus as a stem cell in a neuron. Difference.
The cell is an incredibly complex self-replicating machine with billions of moving parts: molecules. Every imaging technology sees this machine in different but imperfect ways.
Co-author Eric Betzig, molecular and cellular. Said a professor of biology and physics at UC Berkeley and a researcher at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
We bring together two different imaging modalities, since we have Cryo-A R and with MS, it causes penetration into the cellular structure in the nanoscale, which cannot be achieved alone.
Optical microscopy, for example, facilitates the identification of specific cellular structures by labeling them with easy-to-see fluorescent molecules. With the development by Betzig.
And others of super resolution fluorescence microscopy (SR), these structures can be seen more clearly. But fluorescence can reveal only a few of the more than 10,000 protein molecules in a cell at any given time.
And making it difficult to understand how they relate to certain other things. Electron microscopy, on the other hand, reveals all cellular structures in high-resolution images.
But it can be difficult to characterize one characteristic of all others only by MS because the space inside the cells is very full. The combination of the two techniques gives scientists a clearer picture of the specific cellular characteristics related to their environment said Harald Hess.
A senior group leader at the HHMI Genelia Research Campus. “It’s a very powerful way. Genelia’s scientific researcher David Hoffman and senior scientist Gleib Schtezel led the project under the leadership of Hayes and Betzig, who are also senior colleagues of Genelia.
Source: UC Berkele