Astronomers see four new G objects near the supermassive black hole of the Milky Way
Astronomers see four new G objects near the supermassive black hole of the Milky Way

Astronomers see four new G objects near the supermassive black hole of the Milky Way

Astronomers see four new G objects near the supermassive black hole of the Milky Way: In the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, is Sagittarius A *, a supermassive black hole four million times the mass of the Sun. Recently, two unusual objects scorched by dust have been found that orbit near a black hole: the so-called objects G, G1 and G2. Now, an international team of astronomers has observed four additional G objects, all located 0.13 light years from Sagittarius A *, and forming a class of objects that are possibly unique in this environment.

An artist’s representation shows G objects, with red centers, orbiting the supermassive black hole Dhanu A *. The black hole is represented as a black sphere inside a white ring (above the center of the representation).

G objects resemble clouds of gas and dust, but have the properties of stellar objects.

“These objects look like gas and behave like stars,” said Professor Andrea Ghez, an astronomer at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles.

“Their orbits range between 100 and 1,000 years,” said Drs postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles. Anna Sierlo was added.

Professor Ghez and his colleagues identified the first object G, the G1, in 2005.

In 2012, German astronomers discovered a G2 object that reached near a supermassive black hole in 2014.

According to scientists, G2 is probably two stars that orbited a black hole in tandem and merged into a much larger star wrapped in unusually thick gas and dust.

“At the time of the closest approach, the G2 had really strange signatures,” said Professor Ghez.

“We had also seen it before, but it didn’t seem very strange, until it approached the black hole and lengthened, and much of its gas exploded.”

“It went from being a very beautiful object, when it was so far from the black hole that it was actually stretched and distorted at its closest approach and lost its outer layer, and now again getting compact.”

“One of the things that has made everyone excited about G objects is that they are dragged by the forces of the tide as they sweep through the central black hole, essentially falling into the black hole. It should,” said Professor Mark Morris, also from the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the University of California, Los Angeles.

“When this happens, it can produce an impressive fireworks show because the material consumed by the black hole will heat up and emit abundant radiation before disappearing beyond the event horizon.”

The image shows the orbits of the G objects in the center of the Milky Way, with the supermassive black hole Dhanu A * indicated with a white cross. The stars, gas and dust are in the background.

The team now reports the existence of four more G objects: G3, G4, G5 and G6.

While the classes of G1 and G2 are similar, the classes of these new objects are very different.

Astronomers believe that the six objects were binary stars that merged due to the strong gravitational force of the supermassive black hole.

“Black holes can lead to merge binary stars,” said Professor Ghez.

“It is possible that many of the stars we are seeing and that we do not understand are the final fusion products that are great at the moment.”

“The merger of the two stars takes more than 1 million years to complete,” he said.

“The way binary stars interact with each other and with black holes is very different from how individual stars interact with other stars and black holes.”

The findings were published in the journal Nature.

The Vanderbilt researcher shares more than 3,000 brain scanners to support the study of reading and language development: Neuroscientist James R. of Vanderbilt Booth University will publish two large-scale neuroimaging data sets on reading and language development to support other researchers around the world who work to understand how educational skills develop in childhood.

“We can follow our curiosity and answer some interesting questions with these data sets,” said Booth, Patricia and Rhodes Hart, Professor of Educational Neuroscience at the Vanderbilt Peabody School of Human Development and Education. “I hope others can reproduce some of our main findings and expand them in new directions.”

CT scan of the human brain, from the base of the skull to the top.

The digital repository is available on OpenNeuro, with the data set consisting of more than 3,000 MRI scans that detect the structure and function of the brain in school-age children.

Booth and his colleagues have used the data set in “cross-cutting lexical lexical processing” to provide children with a deeper understanding of the specificity and mastery, to understand the process of written and spoken language. Use poetry, spelling and semantic functions to do. -General processes in the brain, and how it relates to educational skills.

By making these data available to the public, other researchers can expand the set of basic research results from this data set, which includes many functions in both visual and auditory methods. For example, researchers can use a network approach to understand if brain dynamics differ according to the demands of the task.

“The longitudinal correlates of the brain of multiplexed lexical processing in children” extend the research carried out in previous data sets, by exploring poetry in audiovisual contexts (see Figure 1). The project focuses on reading skills and one of the main skills related to dyslexia, which is the ability to map between auditory and visual modalities. This data set has a longitudinal component that allows researchers to explore how a person’s reading develops during childhood.

Figure 1. General description of the study design. When the children in MRI decided to rhyme. The researchers collected structural, functional and proliferation neuroimaging data.

Although several research papers on the data have been published, none of these studies have investigated changes in brain activation over time, so the publication of these data offers an exciting opportunity for future research. Future studies can also examine whether these trajectories can be predicted beforehand, which is useful for early detection and intervention.

Compare brain function with academic skills.
In addition to more than 3,000 brain scans, both datasets include scores from several standardized tests, allowing researchers to compare brain function with other educationally relevant skills. Test scores, behavioral performance in imaging tasks, demographics and brain data can be integrated in general to explore how children develop. For example, it is not known how the neural basis of reading skills varies based on cognitive abilities indexed by intelligence measures. In addition, it is not known how socioeconomic status is related to functional changes in the brain over time in the reading network.

Data publication
Recently, detailed descriptions of these datasets have been published in Data in Brief (multidomain) and scientific data (multisensory) to facilitate future data reuse. Both the data sets and their descriptors are open access, which means that anyone with Internet access can read and use these large data sets.

Booth Lab has also launched additional resources on the exchange of neuroimaging data.

“We look forward to continuing our participation in giving back to the scientific community and making research practices more open and transparent,” said Marissa Lytle, research assistant and coordinator of the data exchange project at Booth Sharing Brain Laboratory. “By providing knowledge on how to share data other than data sets, we hope that other researchers feel empowered to share their own data with the research community and the public.”

Researchers develop smart gloves to help astronauts detect the Moon and Mars

Trying to unlock the phone on a cold day with gloves does nothing. Some enter the password with their nose, while others give up and remove a glove to slide.

Now imagine being on the surface of the Moon or Mars, where surviving in the vacuum of space is not an option. After being exposed to only 10 seconds, the water in the body begins to evaporate, causing the skin and tissue to swell.

Thanks to the new astronauts, who go to the Moon on Artemis missions and will eventually be beyond the Red Planet: there are innovative things on the horizon. What are these smart gloves and how will it make it easier for astronauts to live and work in outer space?

From hand-sewn suits to elegant suits

The first space suits, those that protected Apollo astronauts while traveling across the moon, do not appear to be today. During that time, engineers faced many challenges.

To begin, they had to build a suit that would protect astronauts from the cold, airless surface of the moon. However, it had to be comfortable and efficient. In addition, it must be able to withstand extreme temperatures, up to 240 ° F from -280 ° F under the sun, while protecting the inner body. They also needed the ability to exert pressure.

In addition to the above criteria, these suits were hand sewn. A company, Playtex, known today for making bras and other types of underwear, stood out above the rest, creating a suit that was flexible but airtight. It can withstand massive temperature changes and will not be comfortable enough to spend time with astronauts.

Of course, everything designed to work in suits had to be massively equipped, the buttons were easy to handle, since the gloves were heavy. These suits protected the astronauts, but they were not enough to comfortably weave or write letters.

A man-machine interface

Astronauts traveling to the Moon and Mars will have a lot of new technology at their disposal, things that will not be compatible with traditional heavy space suit gloves. From here comes intelligent innovation.

Instead of using manual manipulation, picking up and working with one hand and the new gloves capture hand movements and transfer them wirelessly to any connected device, including drones and robots. Astronauts can eventually use this technology to control autonomous smart drones.

This step is the first to create the next-generation space suits necessary for the long-term residence of our closest interstellar neighbors. Astronauts should be able to interact and explore their environments, especially when we start sending them to the Moon and Mars.

With the use of old-school gloves and heavy suits, these tasks are simply not possible. While the gravity of the Moon is only part of the Earth, it is still difficult to move if a set of heavy outerwear is worn.

To the moon and beyond

Man has already set foot on the moon, but when will we return? How will we travel beyond the known limits to discover humanity’s next destination, whether it’s Mars or a completely new galaxy?

To become a true interstellar species, we will need to constantly update the tools and equipment at our disposal. While some scientists focus on rockets and fuels, others understand the importance of a protective and versatile space suit. These smart gloves, which increase movement and usability, will help bring humanity to the moon and beyond.

Toyota is joining forces with the commercial technology leader eVTOL – electric air taxis are coming: Toyota is entering aviation: it is investing $ 394 million in an aerospace labor aviation company. Joby is trying to produce a commercial fully electric vertical take-off and landing plane, which will revolutionize air transport services. But why Toyota is interested in it? And what can we expect from Joby?

Simply put, Toyota wants to be part of the emerging urban electric air transport services market and is a good business partner for Jobs.

Well, the answer to the first question is really very simple: Toyota is about mobility and all its variants. Joby is trying to offer quiet and economical air transport solutions, which we have today with nothing. This is a great opportunity for Toyota to be part of a completely new business in the transport sector. And you have to remember that Toyota has never been about cars. It produces trucks, heavy equipment, robots and other advanced technologies.

Meanwhile, the work will benefit in many different ways. First, of course, Toyota leads the last round of $ 590 million with $ 394 million. In addition, Toyota will contribute its experience in the construction and knowledge of the transport services market. This would become the right base for the company, since Toyota’s experience in terms of manufacturing technology and business construction is not surprising. The founder and CEO of Joby Aviation, JoBen Bewert, said: “Toyota is known worldwide for the quality and reliability of its products that are carefully operated for expansion and manufacturing processes. I am interested in taking advantage of Toyota’s engineering and manufacturing. Excited for our dream of helping one billion people save an hour + travel time every day AND on the move. “

You may have never heard of Joby, but he is a true leader in the development of EVTOL aircraft. EVTOL technology, vertical electric takeoff and aircraft landing will become the new transport solution for congested cities. Why fight traffic when you can fly over it? The rider’s plane is like a large drone: a mix between a helicopter and a plane.

The first S2 prototype was a two-seater tiltable propeller. But now the company is working on a much more significant S4: four seats with four struts on the wing and two tilt struts on the tail. It will stop completely vertically, but then it will slightly tilt its props and enter airplane mode. This will allow you to reach a respectable speed of approximately 322 km / h. With capacity for four people, including the pilot, but in the future it should be fully autonomous.


We still don’t know when the first prototype will be ready to test. Image credit: Joby Aviation

And yes, it will be completely electric. This would be beneficial in many ways. First, it will work in a much quieter way: when it takes off it will be 100 times less noisy than a helicopter. Second, it will be free of emissions. Joby estimates that the S4 will travel 241 km on a single charge. Given that it will work in a city, this should be enough.

Someday it will be your taxi. Joby wants it to be a cheaper means of transportation for everyone. And we can certainly imagine a future when the skies of the cities are filled with these air taxis. That’s why Toyota wants to be part of this.

Heat or eat? How an energy conservation strategy can harm vulnerable populations: Demand-based billing increases costs disproportionately, which compromises the health of some users.

Any economic and conservation benefits associated with periodic electricity billing can be obtained at the expense of some of the most vulnerable citizens of our society: people with disabilities and the elderly, recent research suggests.

Under a time-use system, energy prices are higher during times of “high demand”, with the intention of creating an incentive for people to reduce their electricity consumption when it is more expensive.

Billing rates for periodic use are becoming increasingly common as public utility companies try to change the use of the residential network at times of the day when the demand for power grids is low or when utility companies Publics may include renewable sources They are, such as solar or wind power, power supply, or both.

The study showed that two vulnerable populations, people with disabilities who are more susceptible to life-saving equipment and older people are more susceptible to temperature changes, showed the largest increase in their bills.

Time-to-use rates were also associated with worse health outcomes in households occupied by people with disabilities than ethnic minorities and their uninfected counterparts.

“Especially for people with disabilities, it may be a forced option. Or you are using your medically necessary equipment, which obviously can be important for maintaining health, or saving money. You can’t get them to do this,” said Nicole Sintov, author. principal of the study at Ohio State University and assistant professor of behavior, decision making and sustainability. “It is a bad choice to make people.”

Sintov said the findings suggest that electricity rates used over time should be adopted on a larger scale, as they have been tested and designed to ensure that they are the most vulnerable energy users. Do not increase the difficulty.

The study is published in the journal Nature Energy.

Billing rates for periodic use are becoming increasingly common as public utility companies try to change the use of the residential network at times of the day when the demand for power grids is low or when utility companies Publics may include renewable sources They are, such as solar or wind power, power supply, or both.

Sintov, a faculty member at the School of Environment and Natural Resources of the Ohio States, said the policies themselves are aimed at mitigating climate change. But she said this research suggests that usage time rates are for those who are more likely to experience the injustice already identified in previous research: people with disabilities and the elderly who make decisions Low-income people and residents who ignore Income may experience energy poverty.

“Families affected by poverty and energy are forced to close the compensation between the payment of electricity bills against other requirements, such as food and medicine,” Syntove and first author Lee White, an Australian citizen in the state of Ohio He was a former postdoctoral researcher at the university. On paper “Timely use and other types of demand-side response measures can lead to this compensation, often called heat or dilemma.”

Sintov and White obtained data from a utility company that surveyed participants in a speed pilot program implemented during the summer in a warm climate in the southwestern United States. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two utilization rate plans with different peak hours and different peak rates or to remain at the current flat rate.

Based on the usefulness of the demographic data collected, the Ohio state researchers created six vulnerability indicators to which participants were appropriately assigned: low-income, elderly, young children, people with disabilities and identifying themselves as Hispanic or African-American. Residents doing. The final sample for the analysis consisted of 7,487 respondents.

Sintov and White applied statistical and mathematical models to the data, to determine whether time and usage rates affect health costs and outcomes for residents of vulnerable and non-vulnerable populations.

Based on the usefulness of the demographic data collected, the Ohio state researchers created six vulnerability indicators to which participants were appropriately assigned: low-income, elderly, young children, people with disabilities and identifying themselves as Hispanic or African-American. Residents doing. The final sample for the analysis consisted of 7,487 respondents.

Sintov and White applied statistical and mathematical models to the data, to determine whether time and usage rates affect health costs and outcomes for residents of vulnerable and non-vulnerable populations.

Timely bill usage rates increased for all participants. But the increase in the bill from the beginning to the pilot year was greater for people with disabilities and older people than their non-vulnerable counterparts.

In fact, these groups were penalized for a lack of flexibility in the use of electricity that is beyond their control, Sintov said, reducing maximum energy use and using air conditioning in affected homes more than others. It was unlikely to be reduced.

The analysis also showed that Hispanic families and people with disabilities experienced worse health outcomes at rates over time, a finding based on more frequent reports from these groups seeking medical attention for heat-related conditions. From

In some cases, specific vulnerable populations perform better with time-use rates than non-vulnerable participants: low-income and Hispanic households had lower bill increases than uninfected counterparts and those with young children. Households experienced better results.

These effects in vulnerable populations are not just theoretical. The California Public Services Commission of 2015 ordered public utility companies owned by state investors to set predetermined rates of use time for residential customers earlier this year. All residential customers affected by default are expected to use rates from time to time in October 2020.

“There are also utilities that already have a predetermined usage rate. Sintov said:” It is possible to get out, but people like to live with the defect. “” If you make a general assessment of the effects of these changes, that many companies of public services they are doing, you will get a general response.But when you start to eliminate it and observe the subpopulations, and especially the populations that are vulnerable to the injustice of energy and already experience them, we see very different results.

“One size does not work.”

The astronomers observed four new G objects near the supermassive black hole of the Milky Way.

An artistic representation shows G objects, with red centers, orbiting the supermassive black hole Dhanu A. The black hole is represented as a black sphere inside a white ring (above the center of representation).

G objects are similar to clouds of gas and dust, but have the properties of stellar objects.

These objects look like gas and behave like stars, said Professor Andrea Gays, an astronomer at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Their orbits are between 100 and 1,000 years old, they are DRS postdoctoral researchers in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles. Anna Ciriello was added.

In 2005, Professor Ghez and his colleagues identified the first object G, G1.

In 2012, German astronomers discovered a G2 object that approached a supermassive black hole in 2014.

According to scientists, the G2 is possibly two stars that orbit a black hole in tandem and merge into a much larger star wrapped in unusually thick gas and dust.

At the time of the closest approach, the G2 had a really strange signature, said Professor Ghez.

We had seen it before, but it didn’t seem very strange, until it approached the black hole and lengthened, and a large amount of gas exploded.

It went from being a very beautiful object when it was so far from the black hole that it actually stretched and distorted at its closest approach and lost its outer layer, and now it is compacting again.

Professor Mark Morris said: “One of the things that has excited everyone about G objects is that they are dragged by the forces of the tide, as they pass through the central black hole, essentially the black hole.” Fall in. “From the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Los Angeles.

When this happens, you can create an impressive fireworks show because the material consumed by the black hole will heat up and emit abundant radiation before disappearing beyond the event horizon.

The image shows the orbits of the G objects in the center of the Milky Way, with the supermassive black hole Dhanu A, indicated with a white cross. The stars, gas and dust are in the background.

The team now reports the existence of four more G elements: G3, G4, G5 and G6. While the classes of G1 and G2 are similar, the classes of these new objects are very different.

Astronomers believe that the six objects were binary stars that merged due to the strong gravitational force of the supermassive black hole. Black holes can merge binary stars, Professor Gheez said.

It is possible that many of the stars we are seeing and that we do not understand are the best fusion products that are excellent at the moment. The merger of the two stars takes more than 1 million years to complete, ”he said.

The way binary stars interact with each other and with a black hole is very different from how stars interact with other stars and black holes. The findings were published in the journal Nature.

The Vanderbilt researcher shares more than 3,000 brain scanners to support the study of reading and language development.

Neuroscientist James R. of Vanderbilt Booth University will publish two large-scale neuroimaging data sets on reading and language development to support other researchers around the world who work to understand how educational skills develop in childhood.

“We can follow our curiosity and answer some interesting questions with these data sets,” Booth, Patricia and Rhodes Hart, professor of educational neuroscience at the Vanderbilt Peabody School of Human Development and Education. “I hope others can reproduce some of our main findings and expand them in new directions.”

CT scan of the human brain from the base of the skull to the apex.

The digital repository is available on OpenNeuro, which has more than 3,000 magnetic resonance images with data sets that detect the structure and function of the brain in school-age children.

Booth and his colleagues use the data set in “cross-cutting lexical processing”, which gives children a deeper understanding of uniqueness and mastery, to understand the process of written and spoken language. It uses poetry, spelling and semantic works. Common processes in the brain and how it relates to educational skills.

By making this data available to the public, other researchers can expand the set of basic research results of this data set, which includes many functions in both visual and auditory methods. For example, researchers can use a network approach to understand if brain dynamics differ according to the demands of the task.

“The longitudinal correlates of the brain of multiplexed lexical processing in children” extend the research carried out in previous data sets, exploring poetry in audiovisual contexts (see Figure 1). The project is one of the main skills related to reading and dyslexia, which focuses on the ability to map between auditory and visual modalities. This data set has a longitudinal component that allows researchers to explore how a person’s reading develops during childhood.

Figure 1. General description of the study design. When the children in MRI decided to rhyme. The researchers collected structural, functional and dissemination data.

Although several research papers on the data have been published, none of these studies have investigated changes in brain activation over time, so the publication of these data offers an exciting opportunity for future research. Future studies can also examine whether these trajectories can be predicted beforehand, which is useful for early detection and intervention.

Compare brain function with educational skills.
In addition to more than 3,000 brain scans, both datasets include scores from several standardized tests, allowing researchers to compare brain function with other educationally relevant skills. Test scores, behavioral performance in imaging tasks, demographics and brain data can be commonly integrated to explore how children develop. For example, it is not known how the neural basis of reading skills varies according to cognitive abilities indexed by intelligence skills. In addition, it is not known how social change over time in reading networks is related to socioeconomic status.

Data publication
Recently, a detailed description of these data sets has been published in Short data (multidomain) and scientific data (multisensory) so that future data can be reused. Both the data sets and their descriptors are open access, which means that anyone with Internet access can read and use these large data sets. Booth Lab has also initiated additional resources in the exchange of neuroimaging data.

“We look forward to continuing our participation in giving back to the scientific community and making research practices more open and transparent,” said Marosa Little, research assistant and coordinator of the data exchange project at the Booth Shared Brain Laboratory. “By providing knowledge on how to share data in addition to data sets, we hope that other researchers feel empowered to share their own data with the research community and the public.”

Researchers develop smart gloves to help astronauts detect the Moon and Mars

Trying to unlock the phone with gloves on a cold day does nothing. Some enter the password with their nose, while others leave and take out a glove to slide.

Now imagine being on the surface of the Moon or Mars, where surviving in the vacuum of space is not an option. Only after 10 seconds of exposure, the water in the body begins to evaporate, causing the skin and tissue to swell.

Thanks to the new astronauts, who go to the moon on an Artemis mission and will eventually be beyond the red planet: there are innovative things on the horizon. What are these smart gloves and how will it make it easier for astronauts to live and work in outer space?

From hand-sewn suits to elegant suits: the first space suits, which protected Apollo astronauts while traveling across the moon, are not visible today. During that time, engineers faced many challenges.

To begin, they had to build a suit that would protect astronauts from the cold, airless surface of the moon. However, it must be comfortable and efficient. In addition, it must be able to withstand extreme temperatures under the sun of -280 ° F to 240 ° F, while protecting the internal body. He also needed the ability to exert pressure.

In addition to the above criteria, these suits were hand sewn. A company, Playtex, known today for the manufacture of bras and other types of underwear, stood out above the rest, creating a suit that was flexible but airtight. It can withstand massive temperature changes and will not be comfortable enough to spend time with astronauts.

Of course, everything designed to work in suits had to be widely equipped, the buttons were easy to handle, since the gloves were heavy. These suits protected the astronauts, but they were not enough to comfortably weave or write letters.

A man-machine interface: astronauts traveling to the Moon and Mars will have at their disposal a lot of new technology, things that will not be compatible with traditional heavy space suit gloves. From here comes intelligent innovation.

Instead of using manual manipulation, one-handed work and new gloves capture hand movements and transfer them wirelessly to any connected device, including drones and robots. Astronauts can eventually use this technology to control autonomous smart drones.

The movement is the first to build the next generation of space suits necessary for the long-term residence of our closest interstellar neighbors. Astronauts should be able to exchange and explore their environments, especially when we start sending them to the Moon and Mars.

With the use of old-school gloves and heavy suits, these tasks are not possible. While the gravity of the Moon is only part of the Earth, it is still difficult to move if a set of heavy outerwear is worn.

To the moon and beyond: man has already stepped on the moon, but when will we return? How will we travel beyond the known limits to discover humanity’s next destination, whether it’s Mars or a completely new galaxy?

To become a true interstellar species, we will need to constantly update the tools and equipment at our disposal. While some scientists focus on rockets and fuels, others understand the importance of a protective and versatile space suit. These smart gloves, which increase movement and usability, will help bring humanity to the moon and beyond.

Toyota is joining forces with the eVTOL commercial technology leader: Electric air taxis arrive

Toyota entering aviation: it is investing $ 394 million in an aerospace labor aviation company. Joby is trying to produce a fully electric commercial take-off and landing plane that will revolutionize air transport services. But why Toyota is interested in it? And what can we expect from Joby? Simply put, Toyota wants to be part of the emerging urban electric air transport services market and is a good business partner for Jobs.

Well, the answer to the first question is really very simple: Toyota is about mobility and all its variants. Joby is trying to offer quiet and affordable air transport solutions, which we have nothing to do today. This is a great opportunity for Toyota to be part of a completely new business in the transport sector. And you have to remember that Toyota has never been about cars. It produces trucks, heavy equipment, robots and other advanced technologies.

Meanwhile, the work will benefit in many different ways. First, of course, Toyota leads the final round of $ 590 million with $ 394,000,000. In addition, Toyota will contribute its experience in the construction and knowledge of the transport services market. This would become the right basis for the company, since Toyota’s experience in terms of manufacturing technology and commercial manufacturing is not surprising. The founder and CEO of Joby Aviation, JoBen Bewert, said: “Toyota is known worldwide for the quality and reliability of its products that are meticulously driven by the processes of expansion and manufacturing. Let me take advantage of the engineering and manufacturing of Toyota Interested. Our dream of helping a billion people is to save and move an hour + travel time every day. “

You may have never heard of Joby, but he is a true leader in the development of EVTOL aircraft. EVTOL technology, vertical electric takeoff and aircraft landing will become new transport solutions for congested cities. Why fight traffic when you can fly over it? The pilot’s plane is like a large drone: a mix between a helicopter and a plane.

The first S2 prototype was a two-seater tiltable propeller. But now the company is working with a much more important S4: four struts on the four-seater wing and two tilt struts on the tail. It will stop completely vertically, but then it will slightly tilt its props and enter airplane mode. This will allow you to reach a respectable speed of approximately 322 km / h. With capacity for four people, including the pilot, but in the future it should be fully autonomous.


We still don’t know when the first prototype will be ready to test. Image credit: Joby Aviation, and yes, it will be completely electric. This would be beneficial in many ways. First, it will work very quietly: when it takes off it will be 100 times less loud than a helicopter. Second, it will be free of emissions. Joby estimates that the S4 will travel 241 km on a single charge. Since it will work in a city, this should be enough.

Someday it will be your taxi. Joby wants it to be a cheaper means of transportation for everyone. And we can certainly imagine a future when the skies of the cities are filled with these air taxis. That’s why Toyota wants to be part of that.

Demand-based billing increases, which compromises the health of some users.

Any economic and conservation benefits associated with periodic electricity billing can be obtained at the expense of some of the most vulnerable citizens of our society: people with disabilities and the elderly, recent research suggests.

Under a time-use system, energy prices tend to be higher during “high demand”, with the intention of creating an incentive for people to reduce their energy consumption when it is more expensive.

Billing rates for periodic use are becoming more common as public utility companies try to change the use of residential networks during the day when the demand for electricity networks is low or when utility companies are publicly renewable . It can include sources, such as solar or wind power, power supplies or both. The study showed that two vulnerable populations, people with disabilities who are more sensitive to life-saving equipment and older people are more sensitive to temperature changes, saw the biggest increase in their bills.

Time to use rates were also associated with poor health outcomes in households occupied by persons with disabilities compared to ethnic minorities and their non-irrigated counterparts.

“Especially for people with disabilities, it may be a forced choice. Or you are using your medically necessary equipment, which obviously can be important to maintain health or save money. You can give them I can’t do this,” said Nicole Syntov. Author. Chief of study at Ohio State University and assistant professor of behavior, decision making and sustainability. “It is a bad choice to make people.”

Sintov said the findings suggest that electricity rates used over time should be largely adopted, as they have been tested and designed to ensure that they are the most vulnerable energy users. The difficulty should not increase.

The study is published in the journal Nature Energy: billing rates for periodic use are becoming more common as public utility companies try to change the use of residential networks during the day when the demand for electricity networks is low or when Public utilities publish. Renewable sources, such as solar or wind power, energy supply, or both can be included.

Sintov, a faculty member at the School of Environment and Natural Resources of the Ohio States, said policies are created to mitigate climate change. But he said this research suggests that usage time rates are for people who are more likely to experience the injustice already identified in previous research: people with disabilities and the elderly who make low-income decisions People and residents who ignore Income may experience energy poverty.

“Families affected by poverty and energy are forced to suspend compensation between paying electricity bills against other necessities such as food and medicine,” said Sintov and first author Lee White, an Australian citizen in the state of Ohio . Who was a former postdoctoral researcher at the university. On paper, “timely use and other types of demand-side response measures can compensate for this, often called heat or dilemma.”

Sintov and White obtained data from a utility company that surveyed participants in a speed pilot program implemented during the summer in a warm climate in the southwestern United States. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two usage rate schemes with different peak hours and different peak rates or to remain in the current flat rate.

Based on the usefulness of the demographic data collected, Ohio State researchers created six vulnerability indicators to which participants were properly assigned: low-income people, the elderly, young children, people with disabilities and themselves Hispanic or African Americans Identifying how residents are doing it. The final sample for the analysis consisted of 7,487 respondents.

Sintov and White applied statistical and mathematical models to the data to determine whether time and usage rates affect health costs and outcomes for residents of vulnerable and uninfected populations. On-time bill usage rates increased for all participants. But bills have increased from the beginning.

Based on the usefulness of the demographic data collected, Ohio State researchers created six vulnerability indicators to which participants were properly assigned: low-income people, the elderly, young children, people with disabilities and themselves Hispanic or African Americans Identifying how residents are doing it. The final sample for the analysis consisted of 7,487 respondents.

Sintov and White applied statistical and mathematical models to the data to determine whether time and usage rates affect health costs and outcomes for residents of vulnerable and uninfected populations. On-time bill usage rates increased for all participants. But the increase in the bill from the beginning to the pilot year was greater for people with disabilities and older people than their unsafe counterparts.

In fact, these groups were penalized for a lack of flexibility in the use of electricity that is beyond their control, Sintov said, minimizing maximum energy use and using air conditioning in affected homes compared to others. This is unlikely to happen. The analysis also revealed that Hispanic families and people with disabilities experienced worse health outcomes at rates over time, a conclusion based on more frequent reports from these groups seeking medical attention for heat-related conditions. . From

In some cases, typical vulnerable populations perform better with time-use rates than uninfected participants: Hispanic and low-income households with non-irrigated counterparts and young children tend to increase the bill. The families experienced better results. These effects are not only theoretical in vulnerable populations. The 2015 California Public Utilities Commission ordered state-owned public utilities to set a predetermined rate of use time for residential customers earlier this year. All residential customers affected by noncompliance are expected to use the rates periodically in October 2020.

“There are also utilities that already have a predefined usage rate. Sintov said:” It is possible to unsubscribe, but people like to live with guilt. “” If you make a general assessment of the effects of these changes, which many of the public service companies are making, you will get a general response. But when you start to eliminate it and observe subpopulations and especially populations vulnerable to the injustice of energy and already experiencing them, we see very different results.

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